Satiety response of white and brown rice compared to glucose control*
Published: April 16, 2012
The objective of this study was to compare satiety response of white rice and brown rice to glucose control. Twenty healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women), mean age of 26.0 and mean BMI of 22.8, participated in this randomized crossover clinical trial. On three separate mornings (each visit has to be at least one week apart), fasted subjects consumed white rice, brown rice or glucose control with liquid (water, tea or coffee) for breakfast. All treatments contained 400 kcals. Visual analogue scales (VAS) was used to assess hunger, satiety, fullness, and prospective food intake at baseline, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 minutes after breakfast. Ad libitum lunch was provided at the test site at 240 minutes, measured by calorie intake and VAS 20 minutes post lunch. Breath hydrogen was collected at baseline and 180 minutes after breakfast to examine colonic fermentation of the treatments. Gastrointestinal tolerance was assessed at 180 minutes after breakfast and over the next 24 hours after visit using questionnaires. 24-hour food intake was also recorded by food diary.
There were significant satiety differences among treatments; increased satisfaction and fullness with white rice and brown rice compared with glucose control. Breath hydrogen response was significantly different between white rice and control. Ad libitum lunch food intake and 24-hour food intake did not differ among treatments.
Messages: Both brown and white rice are more satiating than glucose beverage control. There were no differences between brown and white rice, suggesting that it is food form, rather than whole grain content, that determine satiety response. The satiety value of rice makes it a great addition to meals or as a snack as it increases satisfaction and fullness.
We plan to submit a research paper to Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics – we will aim to have that paper ready by April 1, 2012. Results were also submitted to IFT – we are waiting to hear back from them – we are also considering FNCE (abstracts due in early April).
Followup studies: weight loss study (similar to BOLD study recently published with lean beef consumption) would be a good direction to head. Interest in GI/GL continues, probably more interest in insulin sensitivity. The low gluten content of rice is also a great interest and research to highlight that might makes sense for USA Rice.
* Glucose beverage is a routine control used in weight management/satiety studies.